Venous Stasis

Veins carry blood back to the heart, whereas arteries carry blood from the heart. Venous stasis occurs when normal blood flow from the legs back to the heart is restricted. Improper vein function can result from superficial phlebitis, where superficial vein blood clots develop as a result of injury, or deep venous thrombosis, where blood […]


Although they usually do not last long, spasms, or sudden, intense muscle contractions, can be extremely painful. Spasms can occur in the feet, toes, hands, and thumbs, causing numbness, muscle weakness, tingling, and uncontrollable twitching. Foot and toe spasms are referred to as carpopedal spasms. Some causes of spasms are neuromuscular diseases, vitamin deficiencies, abnormal […]


Neuromas are benign growths of nerve tissue, or nerve tumors, that form when the nerves are irritated by surrounding tissue rubbing against them. Improper footwear that creates pressure on the foot, as well as foot structure abnormalities and injury to the nerves can cause or worsen neuromas. Symptoms of a neuroma include intense pain, swelling, […]

Ischemic Foot

Ischemic foot is inadequate arterial blood flow from the heart to the foot that can occur from arterial blockages, arterial spasms, and injury to the artery. Since blood flow is restricted to the foot, symptoms include cold feet, purplish or discolored toes, muscle cramping, and pain. Ulcers and gangrene can result from the lack of […]


Erythromelalgia, a rare condition, is enlarged blood vessels in the feet; it also can occur in the hands, but not as commonly. Symptoms include redness, intense warmth, burning sensation, and pain. The onset of erythromelalgia can be acute or gradual, and the condition can occur on its own or in relation to another disease. In […]